UPSC CMS MCQs with Answers

Q. In the hills. the soil erosion rakes place due to rapid flow of rain water. It can be most effectively controlled by
(a) building dykes
(b) channelizing the water
(c) jhum cultivation
(d) terrace cultivation

(UPSC CMS 2013)

Answer - D

1)The best method is to plant lot of trees.One can also practice terrace cultivation, contour farming and strip cropping has also been proved useful in many areas. But terrace farming still remains the best.

2) Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is called contour ploughing; Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion

Other Options

A. A dry stone wall, also known as a dry stone dyke, drystane dyke, dry stone hedge, rock fence, or stone fence, is a wall constructed from stones without mortar to bind them together. As with any dry stone construction, the structural integrity arises from compressional forces and the interlocking of the stones. Such walls are used in building construction, as field boundaries, and on steep slopes as retaining walls for terracing. 

C. Jhum or Jhoom cultivation is a local name for slash and burn agriculture practiced by the tribal groups in the northeastern states of India like Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland and also in the districts of Bangladesh like Khagrachari and Sylhet. This system involves clearing a piece of land by setting fire or clear felling and using the area for growing crops of agricultural importance such as upland rice, vegetables or fruits. After a few cycles, the land loses fertility and a new area is chosen.
Most farmers make huts near their land for shelter
Jhum cultivation is most practiced on the slopes of hills in thickly forested landscapes. The cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to reach the land. They burn all the trees and grasses for clean and fresh soil. It is believed that this helps to fertilize the land, but can leave it vulnerable to erosion. Later seeds and crops are planted. Plants on the slopes survive the rainy season floods. Looking at all the effects, the government of Mizoram has launched a policy to end Jhum cultivation in the state.

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